Disney's Nine Old Men (known simply as the Nine Old Men) is a colloquial term for the core animators (some of whom later became directors) at Walt Disney Productions who created some of Disney's most famous works, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to The Rescuers. Walt Disney jokingly called this group of animators his "Nine Old Men," referring to Franklin D. Roosevelt's dismissive description of the nine justices of the US Supreme Court, even though the animators were in their thirties and forties at the time. All members were named Disney Legends in 1989. They are all now deceased, as of 2008.
- Les Clark joined Disney in 1927. His specialty was animating Mickey Mouse as he was the only one of the Nine Old Men to work on that character from its origins with Ub Iwerks. Les did many scenes throughout the years, animating up until Lady and the Tramp. He moved into directing and made many animated featurettes and shorts.
- Marc Davis started in 1935 on Snow White, and later he went on to develop/animate the characters of Bambi and Thumper (in Bambi), Aurora, Maleficent, and Diablo, the raven (in Sleeping Beauty), and Cruella De Vil (in One Hundred and One Dalmatians). Davis was responsible for character design for both the Pirates of the Caribbean and Haunted Mansion attractions at Disneyland.
- Ollie Johnston who joined Disney in 1935 first worked on Snow White. He went on to co-author the animator's bible The Illusion of Life with Frank Thomas. His work includes Mr. Smee (in Peter Pan), the Stepsisters (in Cinderella), the District Attorney (in The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad), and Prince John (in Robin Hood). According to the book The Disney Villain, written by Johnston and Frank Thomas, Johnston also partnered with Thomas on creating characters such as Ichabod Crane (in The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad) and Sir Hiss (in Robin Hood).
- Milt Kahl started in 1934 working on Snow White. His work included villains such as Shere Khan (in The Jungle Book), Edgar the butler (in The Aristocats), the Sheriff of Nottingham (in Robin Hood), and Madame Medusa (in The Rescuers).
- Ward Kimball joined Disney in 1934. His work includes Jiminy Cricket, Lucifer, Jaq and Gus, (in Cinderella), and the Mad Hatter and Cheshire Cat (in Alice in Wonderland). His work was often more 'wild' than the other Disney animators and was unique.
- Eric Larson joined in 1933. One of the top animators at Disney, he animated notable characters such as Peg in Lady and the Tramp; the Vultures in The Jungle Book; Peter Pan's flight over London to Neverland; and Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox, and Br'er Bear (in Song of the South). Because of Larson's demeanor and ability to train new talent, Larson was given the task to spot and train new animators at Disney in the 1970s. Many of the top talents at Disney today were trained by Eric in the '70s and '80s.
- John Lounsbery started in 1935 and, working under Norm 'Fergy' Ferguson, quickly became a star animator. Lounsbery, affectionately known as 'Louns' by his fellow animators, was an incredibly strong draftsman who inspired many animators over the years. His animation was noted for its squashy, stretchy feel. Lounsbery animated Ben Ali Gator in Fantasia in Dance of the Hours; George Darling in Peter Pan; Tony, Joe, and some of the dogs in Lady and the Tramp; the Kings in Sleeping Beauty; the Elephants in The Jungle Book; and many, many others. In the 1970s, Louns was promoted to Director and co-directed Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too! and his last film, The Rescuers.
- Wolfgang "Woolie" Reitherman joined Disney in 1935 as an animator and director. He directed all the animated Disney films after Walt's death until his retirement. Some of his work includes the Crocodile (in Peter Pan), the Dragon (in Sleeping Beauty), and the rat (in Lady and the Tramp).
- Frank Thomas joined Disney in 1934. He went on to co-author the animator's bible The Illusion of Life with Ollie Johnston. His work included the wicked Stepmother (in Cinderella), the Queen of Hearts (in Alice In Wonderland), and Captain Hook (in Peter Pan).
Basic principles of animation
The Nine Old Men also refined the 12 basic principles of animation:
- Squash and stretch
- Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose
- Follow Through and Overlapping Action
- Slow In and Slow Out
- Secondary Action
- Solid Drawing
- Canemaker, John. (2001). Walt Disney's Nine Old Men and the Art of Animation. New York, NY: Disney Editions. ISBN 0-7868-6496-6