- “The 21st century begins October 1, 1982.”
- ―EPCOT Center promotional slogan, 1982
Epcot, formerly EPCOT Center (1982-1994) as well as Epcot '94 in 1994 and Epcot '95 for a brief time in 1995, is the second theme park to open at the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. It is based on Walt Disney's EPCOT, the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow, a futuristic city envisioned to be built south of the Magic Kingdom as part of Walt's plans for Disney World in the mid-1960s.
Epcot has two "lands": Future World and World Showcase. World Showcase features different countries from around the world represented by pavilions with shops, shows, restaurants, and attractions relating to those countries. Future World's attractions focus mainly on the future, education, and technology. As part of the park's ongoing "reimagining", the park is to soon be divided into four "neighborhoods", with the extant World Showcase remaining and Future World being divided into World Celebration, World Discovery, and World Nature.
- “To all who come to this place of joy, hope and friendship—welcome. EPCOT is inspired by Walt Disney's creative vision. Here, human achievements are celebrated through imagination, wonders of enterprise and concepts of a future that promises new and exciting benefits for all. May EPCOT Center entertain, inform and inspire and above all, may it instill a new sense of belief and pride in man's ability to shape a world that offers hope to people everywhere in the world.”
- ―E. Cardon Walker, March 1, 1982
The Experimental Prototype City of Tomorrow (EPCOT) was a concept developed by Walt Disney near the end of his lifetime that went as far as elaborate visions and plans and the purchase of property near Orlando, Florida that eventually became the Magic Kingdom, including Epcot (formerly known as EPCOT Center), a related concept. It was a "community of the future" that was designed to stimulate American corporations to come up with new ideas for urban living. Of EPCOT, Walt Disney is quoted as saying, "EPCOT will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are emerging from the forefront of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed. It will always be showcasing and testing and demonstrating new materials and new systems."
The concept eventually evolved into the Epcot theme park, which opened in 1982 at the Walt Disney World Resort. The original architectural model of the concept can be viewed on the Tomorrowland Transit Authority in the Magic Kingdom.
The first phase of EPCOT took exactly three years (October 1, 1979–October 1, 1982) to build. In total, the phase required almost 3,000 designers and 4,000 construction workers, whose duties included excavating 54 million cubic feet of dirt. Epcot's total area covers 305 acres, more than twice the size of the Magic Kingdom.
In the early 1960s, Walt Disney was a huge success in the entertainment industry, as well as having a family with many grandchildren. In watching his grandchildren grow up, Walt began to worry about the world of the future they, their children, and their children's children would inhabit. He began to notice that the modern cities were hectic, disorganized, dirty, and riddled with crime. This was a far cry from Disney's then-clean and controlled Disneyland Park in California.
Walt began to realize that all that he and his Imagineers had learned about buildings and space in relation to people in the development of Disneyland could be put to use in planning communities, even whole cities. This got Walt thinking, and he began to engross himself in books about city planning and all that was needed to pull something of that magnitude off.
At the same time, Walt Disney had given the East Coast a glimpse of his style of entertainment with the four pavilions Disney developed for the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair. Walt determined, based on how well-received the fair exhibitions were, that the public was ready for an "East-Coast Disneyland". (See Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, Carousel of Progress, It's A Small World)
Disney determined that Florida would provide the ideal place to set up his new East Coast venue. However, Walt did not want to repeat himself by building another Disneyland. He wanted to create something entirely different: a community where people not just played in, but lived in as well. This was the beginning of EPCOT.
Through various dummy corporations, Walt Disney purchased 27,800 acres of Florida swampland (twice the size of Manhattan Island) located between the cities of Orlando and Kissimmee (see Reedy Creek Improvement District). This land would eventually become the Walt Disney World Resort. "Here in Florida we've enjoyed something we've never enjoyed at Disneyland: the blessing of size. There's enough land here to hold all the ideas and plans we could possibly imagine", Walt Disney said, referring to the fact that he had little control over the surrounding area of Disneyland.
Disney also petitioned with the State of Florida Legislature to give Walt Disney Productions municipal jurisdiction over the land they had acquired. This was to make sure that Walt Disney could have full control over every part of the property, even how the buildings were constructed. Walt was planning new ideas in urban living and did not want the government to interfere. This was the beginning of the Reedy Creek Improvement District.
The EPCOT film
In October 1966, two months before his death, Walt Disney made a 30-minute film about his plans for the Florida Project, then dubbed "Disney World". In the film, Walt himself explains briefly how the Florida property will be utilized and how his EPCOT concept will work with the other aspects of Disney World.
Disney made this film primarily to persuade and encourage American industry and various corporations to opt in and help Walt Disney Productions in the creation and running of EPCOT. Disney also encouraged the industrial companies to come up with their best ideas in technology, so that those ideas could be continuously demonstrated in the city.
With the help of concept art and limited animation, Disney showed what the city would look like and how it would work. However, he reminded the viewing audience that the sketches and paintings are only a starting point in the conceptualization of EPCOT, stating: "Everything in this room will change time and time again as we move ahead. But the basic philosophy of what we're planning for Disney World is going to remain very much as it is right now". The film itself can be found here in its entirety.
Walt devised a way to make full use out of the Florida property, with EPCOT as its central attraction. All guests would enter and leave Disney World the same way.
Arriving at the Disney World Airport, in the southern part of the property, guests would be shuttled by monorail to the Disney World Welcome Center. There, guests would be welcomed by Disney hosts and hostesses able to speak in the guests' own languages. After every aspect of their stay had been planned, guests would then reboard the monorail to EPCOT.
Before arriving at EPCOT guests would have the opportunity to visit EPCOT's Industrial Park. This is where Disney World's core concept would come to fruition. The Park's offices and laboratories would be occupied by major American corporations who would use the facilities to develop new technology for use in the EPCOT city. Guests of Disney World would be allowed to go on tours of the facility to see how it all worked. Walt Disney hoped that this would stimulate people to return to their own communities and encourage technological growth where they live.
The Magic Kingdom
Walt never wanted to make a "sequel" to Disneyland, always stating that there will always be one Disneyland. When Walt presented his ideas to the Board of Directors, they were skeptical. They wanted assurance that people would come to visit this "Disney World". What they wanted was a surefire hit: a Disneyland-style park.
Walt initially objected, but eventually relented, and he used the park to his advantage. He put the theme park in the northernmost corner of the Florida property. Disney wanted everyone to experience the rest of Disney World before getting to the theme park area.
The EPCOT city itself, according to the concepts presented in the EPCOT film, was based on a very innovative but simple design: the radial concept. Based on a concept similar to the layout of Disneyland Park, the city radiates out like a wheel from a central core. The urban density of the area would dwindle as the city fanned out.
The city would be connected to the other points in Disney World with a main line of transportation—the monorail. Walt Disney introduced the monorail at Disneyland in 1959. The monorail would cut through the center of the city, connecting EPCOT with the northern and southern points on the Disney World property.
Internal transportation would be provided by a whole new Disney transportation concept: the WEDway PeopleMover. The PeopleMover is a transportation system that never stops, relying on motors embedded in the track rather than in the vehicles. PeopleMover cars would transport residents from the metropolitan center to the outer residential areas. The PeopleMover concept was first demonstrated at Disneyland's Tomorrowland in 1967. The PeopleMover was also installed at the Magic Kingdom; it is now called Tomorrowland Transit Authority.
Because of these two modes of transportation, residents of EPCOT would not need a car. If they did, it would be used "only for weekend pleasure trips." The streets for cars would be kept separate from the main pedestrian areas. The main roads for both cars and supply trucks would travel underneath the city core, eliminating the risk of pedestrian accidents. This was also based on the concept that Walt Disney devised for Disneyland. He did not want his guests to see behind-the-scenes activity, such as supply trucks delivering goods to the city. Like the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World Resort, all supplies are discreetly delivered via underground tunnels.
The two systems, monorail and PeopleMover, would come together at the EPCOT Transportation Lobby. The Transportation Lobby would be located at ground level, above the busy automobile/truck roads. From the Lobby, a passenger riding the monorail from the Magic Kingdom Park to their home would disembark the monorail and transfer to the appropriate PeopleMover station.
EPCOT's downtown and commercial areas would have been located in the central core of the city, away from the residential areas. The entire area would have been completely enclosed, unaffected by the outside elements. "The pedestrian will be king" in this area, free from the danger of cars and other vehicles.
At the center of the area would be a 30-story Cosmopolitan Hotel and Convention Center. This building was to have been the tallest building in EPCOT and could have been seen for miles, like the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland. The parking lot for hotel guests would have been located underneath the city core, right off of the vehicle throughway.
On the "roof" of the enclosed area would be the recreational area for hotel guests. The pool, tennis courts, basketball courts, shuffleboard, and other activities would have been located here. According to Imagineer Bob Gurr, Walt Disney pointed to one of the benches on the scale model of the area and declared, "This is where Lilly [his wife] and I will sit when this thing is finished, taking everything in".
Surrounding the hotel, inside the enclosure, would have been "shops and restaurants that reflect the culture and flavor of locations 'round the world". According to the concept art, these areas would be themed to each country, having the look and feel of each of the exotic locales. This concept eventually evolved into the World Showcase area of the Epcot theme park. The PeopleMover track would travel above these downtown shops and streets in a similar fashion as the system did in Disneyland. Preliminary plan indicated that the people who would have worked in these shops would have also lived in the city.
High-density residential area
On the rim of the city core would have been high-density apartment housing. This is where most of EPCOT's 20,000 citizens would have lived. Not much is discussed about the apartments themselves, although Walt Disney stated that no one in EPCOT would own their land. There would be no difference between an apartment and a home.
All renting rates would be modest and competitive with the surrounding market. Also, the housing would be constructed in such a way to ensure ease of change, so that new ideas/products can be used. A person returning from a hard day's work could very well come home to a kitchen with brand-new appliances in it.
Separating the city core from the low-density residential area would be an expanse of grass areas, known to the planners as the "green belt". This is where the city services would be located. Establishments such as parks with playgrounds, community centers, and churches would be located here.
Low-density residential areas
Beyond the Green Belt was the low-density, single-family house neighborhoods. These areas would have resembled the petals on a flower, with the houses located on the rim of each "petal". Inside the "petal" was a vast green area. The area would have had paths for electric carts, light recreation areas for adults and play areas for children.
The PeopleMover station for each area would have also been located in the green area. The resident could simply walk to the station from their home and on to work. As stated before, residents would not really need a car to get around. Like the apartments, the houses would be built to be easily changed.
Living and employment
As stated above, no one living in EPCOT would own their own land or home, thereby having no municipal voting rights (bond issues, etc.). Walt Disney wanted to exercise this control only to be able to change technology in the homes easily.
According to the film, everybody living in EPCOT would be employed, thereby preventing the formation of slums and ghettos. There would be no retirees, everyone would have had a job. Residents would have been employed at either the Magic Kingdom theme park, the city central core shopping areas, the hotel/convention center, the airport, the Welcome Center, or the industrial park. And, as the film states, "everyone living in EPCOT will have the responsibility to maintain this living blueprint of the future".
Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966. Even when he was dying from lung cancer, his brother, Roy Disney, stated that Walt was still planning his city in the hospital. Walt was using the ceiling to imagine his city, planning excitedly.
After Walt's passing, the company directors decided that it was too risky to venture into city planning now that its biggest advocate was gone. But Roy persisted and took the reins on the project, stepping out of retirement to do it. However, Roy could not convince the board to build EPCOT. But, he did pull ahead with the Magic Kingdom project.
The Walt Disney World Resort opened in October 1971 with only the Magic Kingdom and two hotels. Roy insisted it be called Walt Disney World as a tribute to the man who dreamed it up.
Even though the city was never built, the Resort represents some of the forward-thinking planning that embodied Walt's idea of EPCOT. Because of the formation of the RCID, Disney could find innovative solutions to the problems of transportation, building construction, waste disposal, and supplying electrical power.
Imagineers, including Disney Legends John Hench and Richard Irvine, devised ingenious means of waste disposal and sewer transport. The monorail, while mainly an attraction at Disneyland, was utilized as an actual transportation system, taking guests some thirteen miles around the Resort area.
In the late 1970s, Disney CEO Card Walker wanted to revisit the EPCOT idea. But the board was still wary and all agreed that Walt's EPCOT would not work in its initial incarnation just yet; they thought that no one would want to live under a microscope and be watched constantly. The result of the compromise was the EPCOT Center theme park, which opened in 1982.
While still emulating Walt Disney's ideas, it was not a city, but rather closer to that of a World's Fair. But it did, and still does, revolve around technology and the future in the Future World area. The World Showcase is an embellished version of the downtown shopping area, albeit without the enclosure.
In the early 1990s, the Walt Disney Company built an actual community on the Florida property called Celebration. It is a planned community that employs some of the ideas that Walt Disney envisioned, but on a slightly smaller scale. Unlike EPCOT, which was based on modernism and futurism, there is no radial design for Celebration. Celebration is designed based on new urbanism, and resembles a small American town, but has all the modern conveniences, without the revolutionary transportation ideas contained in the plans for EPCOT.
Epcot is notably home to the Epcot International Flower and Garden Festival, taking place in the spring, as well as the International Food & Wine Festival, taking place in the fall
EPCOT During Monstrous Summer
EPCOT Center (1982-1994)
- Spaceship Earth and Earth Station, Presented by Bell (82-86) AT&T (86-03)
- Vic Perrin Narration (1982-1986)
- Walter Cronkite Narration (1986-1994)
- CommuniCore (1982-1994)
- Horizons (1983-1999), Presented by General Electric (83-93)
- Universe of Energy (1982-1996), Presented by Exxon (82-96)
- Wonders of Life (1989-2007), Presented by Metlife (89-01)
- World of Motion (1982-1996), Presented by General Motors
- The Living Seas (1986-2006), Presented by United Technologies (86-99)
- The Land (1982–present), Presented by Kraft (1982-1992), Presented by Nestle (93-09)
- Journey Into Imagination (1982-1998), Presented by Kodak (1982-2010)
- Carnival de Lumiere (1982-1983)
- A New World Fantasy (1983-1984)
- Laserphonic Fantasy (1984-1988)
- IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth (1988–present)
- Spaceship Earth and Global Neighborhood/New Global Neighborhood, Presented by AT&T(1986-2003)/ Siemens AG(2005–present) Project Tomorrow (2007-present)
- Jeremy Irons Narration (1995-2007)
- Judi Dench Narration (2007–present)
- Innoventions (1994–present)
- Ellen's Energy Adventure (1996–2017), Presented by ExxonMobil (96-04)
- Festival Center (2008-2018)
- Mission: Space (2003–present), Presented by HP
- Test Track Version 1 (1999–2012), Presented by GM, Version 2 (2012-present), Presented by Chevorlet
- The Seas with Nemo & Friends (2006–present)
- Turtle Talk with Crush (2004–present)
- The Land, Presented by Nestle (93-09)
- Imagination! Pavilion (1999-present), presented by Kodak (82-10)
- Mexico Pavilion
- Norway Pavilion
- China Pavilion
- Germany Pavilion
- Italy Pavilion
- The American Adventure
- Japan Pavilion
- Morocco Pavilion
- France Pavilion
- International Gateway
- United Kingdom Pavilion
- Canada Pavilion
- Kim Possible World Showcase Adventure (2009-2012)
- Agent P's World Showcase Adventure (2012–present)
- Tapestry of Nations (1999-2001)
Recent Park Map
- IllumiNations 25 (1996-1999)
- IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth (1999–2019)
- Tapestry of Nations/Tapestry of Dreams (1999-2003)
- Epcot Forever (2019-present)
Epcot is mentioned in the first two books and is a location in the third and fourth books in the Kingdom Keepers saga.
Kingdom Keepers II: Disney At Dawn
In Disney At Dawn, Finn visits Epcot to look for clues at the Seas with Nemo and Friends when they are looking for sea-related places. However, this is only mentioned and isn't shown.
Kingdom Keepers III: Disney In Shadow
Epcot is the main setting in the third book of the series, Disney in Shadow. The whole book is a search for Wayne, who the Keepers know has been captured and is being held somewhere in Epcot. Jess, Amanda, and Finn go to the park during park hours and try looking for any clues, when in front of The Land pavilion, Jess gets a vision though she can hardly capture it. They continue the search until Finn notices a mysterious woman is following them, and warns the girls. They are forced to enter Living with the Land to fool the woman, but unluckily she too gets in the ride and tries to talk to them. Amanda and Jess abandon the boat in the middle of the ride and are temporarily banned from the park. They later discover the woman was Wanda, Wayne's daughter. She gives them a clue Wayne gave her. Jess is later able to finish her vision and sketches it in her journal. The sketch shows Wayne in a room with a carousel wallpaper and letters drawn in the wall. They solve the code in the wall which leads them to watch Dumbo, which leads them to the closed Wonders of Life pavilion in Epcot. After a mission there after-hours, they find the room, but not Wayne. The next day, they figure out the code Wayne sent them, thinking it might mean a sword in Norway, or a cross in France.That night, Charlene, Willa, and Jess go to the France pavilion and Philphy and Maybeck to the Norway pavilion, while Finn and Amanda go to the Lost and Found to look for their lost returning fob. Maybeck and Philby get a sword at the Maelstrom ride, but have to fight with the attraction's trolls to escape. While the girls find nothing in France, they do have to battle a gargoyle and two jesters. Meanwhile, Finn and Amanda find the fob, but cannot retrieve it until the lost and found opens, therefore being trapped in the park until then. The Keepers meet and discover yet another clue in the sword. A fly's image pasted into the handle. They split up again to look for clues in flying-related attractions. Willa and Jess go to Soarin', Maybeck and Charlene go to Mission: SPACE, and Finn and Philby go to Test Track (Due to low temperature records) while Amanda watches over them from the control cabin in the Mexico Pavilion. In Mission: SPACE, they find a recorded message from Wayne, where he warns them of a traitor between their friends. At Soarin', they find a hint the Overtakers have a plan that includes sabotaging the attractions' seat belts. At Test Track, Finn and Philby encounter Maleficent and are nearly killed in various instances that end on a car derailing, causing a wreck in the attraction's surroundings. They meet again and decide to return to the Wonders of Life and see if Jess's vision already occurred. They see many of the Overtakers guarding the pavilion, though the Kingdom Keepers are able to get in. Charlene sees Wayne tied up and tries to free him. Soon she realizes it is a trap, and a lion and trolls start attacking her. Since Philby is watching everyone at the control center, he is able to get them out, though Wayne was not in the room anymore. After figuring out some more clues Wayne gave in the video, they head to Disney's Hollywood Studios. The book's finale, after time at the studios, takes place in the IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth floats.
Kingdom Keepers IV: Power Play
In the fourth book, Power Play, Epcot is also an important location. The Keepers meet at the Stave Church in the Norway Pavilion after a message from Wayne. Then, a girl playing the Kim Possible: World Showcase Adventure enters the place and gets a message on her Kimmunicator to show it to the nearest Kingdom Keeper. Finn grabs the phone and reads a message from Wayne telling them to go to the Kim Possible cart in the Norway Pavilion. They get their own Kimmunicator here that sends them throughout the pavilion, giving them various clues. At the end of the search, they are told to take a picture of themselves and when they return to the kart, Finn is given two photographs, one with kids talking with the Evil Queen, and one that showed Charlene entering a bathroom right before the Evil Queen did. Later that night, Philby finds out Charlene was crossed over by an unknown source. He and Finn cross over to try to find her in Epcot. From the control booth at the Mexico pavilion they are able to see her being pursued by Crash Test dummies and entering Maelstrom. They go to rescue her, but trolls start attacking them. They manage to defeat them, but believing Charlene was cursed by the Evil Queen, Philby kisses her, which seems to wake her up from an unconscious spell.
When EPCOT Center first debuted, each pavilion was represented by a circular logo representing the themes behind it. The original batch of logos through the debut of The Living Seas were designed by graphic designer Norm Inouye, with the practice largely being retired after Wonders of Life opened. As part of the park's 2019 overhaul, the tradition of Pavilion Icons were brought back, with the park's new attractions as well as attractions that never received them gaining their own.
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