During the Clone Wars, Mandalore stayed neutral but there was an opposition between Death Watch led by Pre Vizsla and the New Mandalorians led by Duchess Satine Kryze, who were pacifists. When Darth Maul took control of the planet after becoming leader of the Mandalorian Death Watch and killing Satine and Vizsla, the event led to a Republic invasion on Mandalore in which Ahsoka Tano and Captain Rex captured Maul, but were themselves attacked and forced to escape when Palpatine issued Order 66. Later during the rise of the Galactic Empire, Mandalore was occupied by the Empire, where it became the host of an Imperial training academy.
Sometime later, Mandalore was free from Imperial control with Lady Bo-Katan Kryze becoming the planet's new ruler.
After the Battle of Endor, the Empire launched a massive attack on Mandalore called the Great Purge. This resulted in the entire surface being bombed, with only a handful of Mandalorians surviving. The planet was rendered uninhabitable, forcing them to go into hiding on other worlds.