Margaret J. Winkler (April 22, 1895June 21, 1990) was a key figure in silent animation history, having a crucial role to play in the histories of Max and Dave Fleischer, Pat Sullivan, Otto Messmer, and Walt Disney. She was the first woman to produce and distribute animated films.


Winkler began her career as personal secretary of Harry Warner, one of the founders of Warner Bros. Warner was impressed with Winkler's talents, and when Max and Dave Fleischer, owners of Fleischer Studios, came to him with their series Out of the Inkwell, he gave it to Winkler and encouraged her to form her own distribution company, Winkler Pictures, on a state's rights basis. At the end of 1922 the Fleischer brothers, flushed with success from Winkler's work, left her to form their own distribution company, Red Seal Pictures.

In 1922, she signed a contract with Pat Sullivan Productions to produce Felix the Cat cartoons. However much he helped her business, Sullivan and Winkler were constantly fighting. In September 1923, the renewal of his contract came up, and his unrealistic demands meant for a while that Winkler Pictures might have to survive without Felix. She was open to viewing a pilot reel submitted by then neophyte animator Walt Disney, called "Alice's Wonderland", which was the first entry in the "Alice Comedies" series. Winkler was intrigued with the idea of a live-action girl in a cartoon world, and signed Disney to a year-long contract despite the fact that the studio that made the cartoon, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, was now bankrupt.

In any case, Disney formed a new studio, the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio on October 16, 1923. Disney was helped by the tutelage of Winkler, who insisted on editing all of the "Alice Comedies" episodes herself. One of her suggestions was the addition of a suspiciously Felix-like character called Julius. This was apparently the "straw that broke the camel's back" for Sullivan, who signed with rival distributor E. W. Hammons of Educational Pictures in 1925.


In 1924, she married Charles B. Mintz, a film distributor who had been working for her since 1922. Soon after she had her first child Katherine in 1925 and retired from the business, turning her company over to Charles. The couple had two children, Katherine and William.[1]


Margaret W. Mintz died, aged 95, on June 21, 1990, in Mamaroneck, New York.[2]


  1. U.S. Government Census, 1930
  2. Margaret Winkler obituary, L.A. Times. June 24, 1990


  • John Canemaker; Felix: The Twisted Tale of the World's Most Famous Cat; Pantheon Books; ISBN 0-679-40127-X (1991)
  • Donald Crafton; Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898-1928; University of Chicago Press; ISBN 0-226-11667-0 (2nd edition, paperback, 1993)
  • Denis Gifford; American Animated Films: The Silent Era, 1897-1929; McFarland & Company; ISBN 0-89950-460-4 (library binding, 1990)
  • Leonard Maltin; Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons; Penguin Books; ISBN 0-452-25993-2 (1980, 1987)
  • Russell Merritt and J. B. Kaufman; Walt in Wonderland: The Silent Films of Walt Disney; Johns Hopkins University Press; ISBN 0-8018-4907-1 (paperback, 1993)
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