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This article is about the 1998 animated film. For the character, see Fa Mulan. For the 2020 live-action film, see Mulan (2020 film).

Mulan is a 1998 animated musical comedy-adventure drama film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures on June 19, 1998. The 36th animated feature in the Disney Animated Canon and the ninth film in the Disney Renaissance, the film is based on the Chinese legend of Hua Mulan, and was the first of three produced primarily at the animation studio at Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando, Florida. It was directed by Tony Bancroft and Barry Cook, with the story by Robert D. San Souci and Rita Hsiao, among others.

While the film today is very popular among the millennial generation, many of which praise it for being the most progressive Disney Princess film, the film did only modestly well at the box office; its success did not quite reach the standards of previous Disney Renaissance movies, such as Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and The Lion King.


Shan Yu and his army of Huns invade China, breaching the Great Wall via grappling hooks. This prompts a panicked soldier to light the sentry fires, which will alert the Emperor of China about Shan Yu's appearance. As a result of the invasion, each family is given a conscription notice; a male member of the family must serve in the army, but if they have a son then they could take their fathers' place. Fa Mulan, who is both energetic, active, and adventurous, is scheduled by her family to meet with the local matchmaker, so that she could demonstrate her skills to become a future wife.

Unfortunately, it goes awry and this brought dishonor to the Fa family. Later, Mulan's father, Fa Zhou, is ordered to serve in the army. Due to his age and previous war injuries, however, it is unlikely he will survive. Though Mulan tried to tell Chi-Fu, the Emperor's meddling and misogynistic advisor, of her father's condition, she only ended up further dishonoring not only herself but also her father. That night, Mulan and Fa Zhou get into an argument over the latter's decision to go into the war, but Fa Zhou remained firmly adamant, as he is strongly bound to his honor.

Later, against her family's wishes, Mulan secretly disguises herself as a man, then takes her father's conscription notice, armor, and sword so that he will not have to go. She then rides away on her horse, Khan, to join the army. However, her departure was discovered. Though Fa Zhou's wife, Fa Li, urges her husband to go after Mulan, he revealed that their daughter would be put to death if he reveals her identity, as women are strictly forbidden from joining the army and would be punishable by execution if they are caught.

Mushu, a small Chinese dragon, has been awakened by the family's First Ancestor, who heard the prayer of Mulan's grandmother, Grandmother Fa, to keep Mulan safe. Mushu had been demoted to gong ringer after a mishap with one of the ancestors from the last time they were awakened. After various choices of which guardian to send after Mulan, he is asked to awaken the "Great Stone Dragon". Mushu, however, accidentally destroys the Dragon but realizes that this could be an opportunity to earn his place among the guardians again if he can make Mulan a war hero. Cri-Kee joins him in this task.

In the meantime, Shan Yu and the Huns pillage a city on the way to the Imperial Palace. Leaving the wreckage, they locate two spies. Shan Yu asks them to send a message to the Emperor telling him that the Huns are coming and are ready to engage the Imperial Armies. However, as they run off, Shan Yu orders his archer to murder one.

Despite bad advice from Mushu leading to a rocky start at the training camp, Mulan (under the alias "Ping") trains with a group of soldiers, alongside fellow soldiers Yao, Ling, and Chien Po, and they're all led by Captain Li Shang. Mulan fails at the training regiment, causing a disappointed Shang to order her to go home, though he is unaware of her true identity. Refusing to give up, Mulan uses her intelligence and determination to solve a puzzle that Shang had set up, becoming the first soldier to do so, surprising Shang in the process. Following that, Mulan rapidly improved her efforts throughout her training, which encouraged her fellow soldiers, including Yao, Ling, and Chien Po, to improve as well, causing Mulan to earn their respect and trust. At some point during this, Shan Yu's falcon, Hayabusa, uncovers a doll from a mountain village, revealing that the Imperial army is waiting for them. One of the Elite Hun Soldiers claims that it will be easy to avoid the ambush, but Shan Yu insists they proceed through the mountains, remarking they should "return" the doll to its rightful owner.

Soon after this event, the troops complete their training, but Chi-Fu refuses to let them see battle, accusing the troops of being ill-prepared. Overhearing this and fearing that this would ruin his plan, Mushu forges an urgent letter from Shang's father, General Li, ordering his son to take his men to battle. The troops set out to meet the General, who has already left on a mission to the village where Hayabusa took the doll. However, Shang and his troops made a tragic discovery in the now-destroyed village; General Li and his men were killed in battle against Shan Yu. As they leave, Mulan places the doll she found in the village and places it in front of the General's makeshift grave Shang made for his father.

Shang and his troops continue on, disheartened by their loss, when they are ambushed by Hun archers due to a misfired cannon by Mushu. After an initial attack, the Huns are believed to be defeated, but the troops soon discover otherwise, and Shan Yu orders a massive cavalry charge to finish off the remaining men. Shang orders his troops to prepare to fight the Huns and Yao to fire the last cannon at Shan Yu, hoping to take the Hun leader with them in death if they die. However, Mulan spots a precarious mound of snow on the upper mountainside. Snatching the cannon from Yao during the charge, she fires the rocket at the snow mound on the mountainside. It hits the mound near the summit and triggers a large avalanche, spreading all over and swallowing the now fleeing Huns, including Shan Yu, burying them under mounds of snow. Shang's soldiers take refuge while Mulan rescues Shang from being swept away by the avalanche and falling off a cliff. The soldiers initially cheered for their victory but it quickly become somber after Mulan discovers that she is bleeding; she had been wounded by a swipe of Shan Yu's sword before the avalanche buried the Hun leader and his army. Shang quickly summons a doctor just as Mulan faints.

Unfortunately, during treatment, the doctor discovered Mulan's true identity and notified Shang, who is expected to execute Mulan. However, he spares her life (her having saved his own life during the avalanche) and promptly expels her from the army instead. Shang and his troops promptly continue their path to the capital, leaving Mulan behind. Mulan decides to return home, but discovers that Shan Yu and a few Huns have survived the avalanche and are now heading towards the city. Meanwhile, at the capital, Shang and his troops are being heralded by citizens in a parade for their war efforts, however, Shang, Yao, Ling, and Chien Po were not in good spirits as they are noticeably saddened over having to leave Mulan behind, but the latter suddenly arrives. Shang wasn't happy to see Mulan again and refused to believe her claim that the Huns are in the city. At the imperial palace, as the Emperor addresses the crowd, Mulan tries to warn the people of the Huns, but they wouldn't listen. As Shang was about to give Shan Yu's sword to the emperor, it was suddenly snatched by Hayabusa, who proceeded to give it to his master, who horrifies the crowd by revealing his presence. His fellow Huns, who were disguised as parade characters underneath a big Chinese dragon costume, immediately reveal themselves and kidnap the Emperor, taking him hostage in his palace.

Shang and his troops tried to follow the Huns inside but are unsuccessful, as the Huns had barricaded the doors. However, Mulan devises a clever ploy with Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po; they will scale one of the walls and infiltrate the palace with Shang, who joins them despite his initial hesitation to follow Mulan. In addition, Yao, Ling, and Chien Po will make the Huns lower their guard while in disguise as concubines. The ploy proved to be successful as when the Huns lower their defenses in the presence of the "women", they were swiftly dispatched by them and Mulan, allowing Shang to reach the Emperor. Meanwhile on a balcony, Shan Yu demands the Emperor to bow before him during this attack, but the Emperor calmly rebuffs him. Before Shan Yu can kill him, Shang intervenes, and the Emperor is safely removed from the palace by Chien Po while Yao and Ling followed. Unfortunately, Shang and Mulan are now trapped on the balcony with Shan Yu. The Hun leader is about to kill Shang when Mulan puts on her hair bun that she used for her "Ping" disguise. Recognizing her from the mountain battle, Shan Yu gives chase, intent on avenging his fallen army. Mulan lures him onto the palace rooftop, where she disarms and pins him with his own sword. As arranged by Mulan, Mushu launches a huge firework rocket that hits Shan Yu, sending him flying into a tower of rockets and firecrackers. He is immediately killed in the resulting explosion while the fate of the remaining five Hun warriors is never fully disclosed.

Following Shan Yu's demise, Mulan was confronted by an angry Chi-Fu for the "deliberate on his life", but Shang came to her defense. The Emperor eventually arrives and meets Mulan. In an accusatory tone, he lists Mulan's crimes, but it changes to gratitude as he thanks her for saving China and himself. The Emperor then bows to Mulan, which is considered an extremely high honor as it implies being of a higher status than the Emperor. Seeing this, Chi-Fu immediately kowtows before Mulan followed by Shang, Yao, Ling, Chien Po and hundreds of observers. The Emperor then offers Mulan a position among his staff (even offering to have her replace Chi-Fu, who faints upon hearing this). Though certainly flattered by the offer, Mulan politely declines it, explaining that she'd rather go back home. The Emperor accepts this, and he gives her Shan Yu's sword, along with his crest, for her to bring home and give honor to her family. After bidding farewell to Shang and her newfound friends, Mulan begins her journey home.

Upon her return, Mulan expects to be reprimanded but is instead embraced by her father, proudly telling her that having her as his daughter is his greatest gift and honor. Her mother and grandmother see them reconciling before Shang arrives to talk with Mulan, having been encouraged to tell her his feelings for her by the Emperor. The First Ancestor reluctantly agrees to make Mushu a guardian once more, and a celebration ensues.


Development for Mulan began in 1994, after the production team sent a select group of artistic supervisors to China for three weeks to take photographs and drawings of local landmarks for inspiration; and to soak up local culture The filmmakers decided to change Mulan's character to make her more appealing and selfless and turn the art style closer to Chinese painting, utilizing watercolor, to give the film a more cultural appeal.


In 1989, Walt Disney Feature Animation Florida had opened with 40 to 50 employees, with its original purpose to produce cartoon shorts and featurettes. However, by late 1993, following several animation duties on Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and The Lion King, Disney executives were convinced to allow the Feature Animation Florida studios to produce their first independent film. Around that same time, Disney Feature Animation developed an interest into Asian-themed legends beginning with the optioning several books by children's book author Robert D. San Souci who had a consulting relationship with Disney executive Jay Dyer. Around that same time, a short straight-to-video film titled China Doll about an oppressed and miserable Chinese girl who is whisked away by a British Prince Charming to happiness in the West was in development. Thomas Schumacher asked Souci if he had any additional stories, in which Souci turned in a manuscript of a book based on the Chinese poem "The Song of Fa Mu Lan". Ultimately, Disney decided to combine the two separate projects.

Following the opening of the Feature Animation Florida studios, Barry Cook, who had served as a special-effects animator since 1982, had directed the Roger Rabbit cartoon Trail Mix-Up produced at the satellite studio. Upon a lunch invitation with Thomas Schumacher, Cook was offered two projects in development: a Scottish folk tale with a dragon or Mulan. Knowledgeable about the existence of dragons in Chinese mythology, Cook suggested adding a dragon to Mulan, in which a week later, Schumacher urged Cook to drop the Scottish project and accept Mulan as his next project. Following this, Cook was immediately assigned as the initial director of the project, and cited influences from Charlie Chaplin and David Lean during production. While working as an animator on the gargoyles for The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Tony Bancroft was offered to co-direct the film following a recommendation from Rob Minkoff, co-director of The Lion King, to Schumacher, in which he accepted, and joined the creative team by early 1995.

In 1994, the production team sent a select group of artistic supervisors to China for three weeks to take photographs and drawings of local landmarks for inspiration; and to soak up local culture. Key members of the creative team at the time – Pam Coats, Barry Cook, Ric Sluiter, Robert Walker, and Mark Henn – were invited to travel to China as a research trip to study the landscape, people, and history of the original legend. From June 17 to July 2, 1994, the research trip flew to Beijing, China, which is where Pam Coats became inspired by the placement of flags on the Great Wall. They also toured Datong, Luoyang, Xi'an, Jiayuguan, Dunhuang, and Guilin.


In its earliest stages, the story was originally conceived as a Tootsie-like romantic comedy film where Mulan, who was a misfit tomboy that loves her father, is betrothed to Shang, whom she has not met. On her betrothal day, her father Fa Zhou carves her destiny on a stone tablet in the family temple, which she shatters in anger, running away to forge her own destiny. In November 1993, Chris Sanders, who had just finished storyboard work on Lion King, was hoping to work on The Hunchback of Notre Dame until Schumacher appointed him to work on Mulan instead. Acting as Head of Story, Sanders grew frustrated with the romantic comedy aspect of the story, and urged producer Pam Coats to be more faithful to the original legend by having Mulan leave home because of the love for her father. This convinced the filmmakers to decide to change Mulan's character in order to make her more appealing and selfless.

Sequence Six – in which Mulan takes her father's conscription order, cuts her long hair, and dons her father's armor – served as a pivotal moment in the evolution of Mulan's character. Director Barry Cook explained that the sequence initially started as a song storyboarded by Barry Johnson and redrawn by character designer Chen-Yi Chang. Following the story changes to have Mulan leave to save her father, the song was dropped. Storyboard artist and co-head of story Dean DeBlois was tasked to revise the sequence, and decided to board the sequence with "minimal dialogue". Assisted with an existing musical selection from another film score courtesy of Sanders, the sequence reel was screened for Peter Schneider and Thomas Schumacher, both of whom were impressed. DeBlois stated, "Sequence Six was the first sequence that got put into production, and it helped to establish our 'silent' approach." Additionally, General Li was not originally going to be related to Shang at all, but by changing the story, the filmmakers were able to mirror the stories of both Shang's and Mulan's love for their fathers. As a Christian, Bancroft declined to explore Buddhism within the film.

Because there was no dragon in the original legend, Mulan did not have animal companions; it was Roy E. Disney who suggested the character of Mushu. Veteran story artist Joe Grant created the cricket character, Cri-Kee, though animator Barry Temple admitted "the directors didn't want him in the movie, the story department didn't want him in the movie. The only people who truly wanted him in the movie were Michael Eisner and Joe Grant – and myself, because I was assigned the character. I would sit in meetings and they'd say, 'Well, where's the cricket during all this?' Somebody else would say, 'Oh, to hell the cricket.' They felt Cri-Kee was a character who wasn't necessary to tell the story, which is true." Throughout development on the film, Grant would slip sketches of Cri-Kee under the directors' door.


Before production began, the production team sought out Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, or Korean vocal talents. Tia Carrere was an early candidate to voice the title character. However, Lea Salonga, who had been the singing voice of Princess Jasmine in Aladdin, was initially cast to provide both Mulan's speaking and singing voices, but the directors did not find her attempt at a deeper speaking voice when Mulan impersonated Ping convincing, so Ming-Na Wen was brought in to speak the role. Salonga returned to provide the singing voice. Wen herself landed the role after the filmmakers listened to her narration at the beginning of The Joy Luck Club. Coats reflected on her decision, stating, "When we heard Ming-Na doing that voice-over, we knew we had our Mulan. She has a very likable and lovely voice, and those are the qualities we were looking for."

For the role of Mushu, Disney was aiming for top Hollywood talent in the vein of Robin Williams's performance as the Genie in Aladdin. The filmmakers initially approached Joe Pesci and Richard Dreyfuss until Michael Eisner considered Eddie Murphy. After accepting the role, Murphy initially balked when he was asked to record at the Disney studios, but then asked to record the voice in his basement at his Bubble Hill mansion in Englewood, New Jersey.

For the speaking voice of Captain Li Shang, BD Wong was hired, although his singing voice, for the song "I'll Make a Man Out of You", was performed by Donny Osmond, who had previously auditioned to be the speaking voice of the title character in Hercules. Osmond's casting originated from a suggestion from the casting director, and throughout recording, Osmond studied Wong's dialogue tapes, and aimed to match his inflections and personality. Osmond commented that his sons decided that he had finally "made it" in show business when he was in a Disney film. Likewise for the role of Grandmother Fa, June Foray provided the speaking voice, and Marni Nixon supplied the singing voice.

Animation and design[]

To achieve a harmonious visual look, producer designer Hans Bacher and art director Ric Sluiter, along with Robert Walker and Head of Backgrounds Robert Stanton collaborated to establish a proper chronological location for the film in Chinese history. Since there was no general consensus on the time of Mulan's existence, they based the visual design on the Ming and Qing dynasties. An important element of Bacher's design was to turn the art style closer to Chinese painting, with watercolor and simpler design, as opposed to the details of The Lion King and The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Bacher further studied more than thirty-five film directors ranging from the silent era German Expressionism, British and American epics of the 1950s and 60s, and the Spaghetti Westerns for inspiration for composition, lighting, and staging that would establish settings that enhanced the characters. Additional inspiration was found in the earlier Disney animated films such as Bambi, Pinocchio, and Dumbo to establish a sense of staging.

In October 1997, the Walt Disney Company announced a major expansion of its Florida animation operations constructing a 200,000-square-foot, four-story animation building and the addition of 400 animators to the workforce.

To create 2,000 Hun soldiers during the Huns' attack sequence, the production team developed crowd simulation software called Attila. This software allows thousands of unique characters to move autonomously. A variant of the program called Dynasty was used in the final battle sequence to create a crowd of 3,000 in the Forbidden City. Pixar's photorealistic open API RenderMan was used to render the crowd. Another software developed for this movie was Faux Plane, which was used to add depth to flat two-dimensional painting. Although developed late in production progress, Faux Plane was used in five shots, including the dramatic sequence which features the Great Wall of China, and the final battle sequence when Mulan runs to the Forbidden City. During the scene in which the citizens of China are bowing to Mulan, the crowd is a panoramic film of real people bowing. It was edited into the animated foreground of the scene.


Mulan Screenshot

From left to right: Cri-Kee, Mushu, Fa Mulan, Kahn.

Additional Voices[]

  • Tom Amundsen
  • Arminae Austen
  • Mary Kay Bergman as Ancestor
  • Susan Boyd
  • Julianne Buescher as Young Bride
  • Steve Bulen
  • Corey Burton as Ancestor
  • Mitch Carter
  • Robert Clotworthy as Hun, Bao
  • David Cowgill
  • Sally Dworsky
  • Bill Farmer as Ancestor
  • Beth Fowler as Bather
  • Don Fullilove
  • Elisa Gabrielli
  • Jack Gilpin as Bai
  • Sandie Hall
  • Richard S. Horvitz as Chinese Solider, Zhencha
  • Linda Kerns
  • Matthew Labyorteaux
  • Conan Lee
  • Dana Lee
  • Edie Lehmann-Boddicker as Chorus
  • Luisa Leschin
  • Christina Ma
  • Susan McBride
  • Huanani Minn
  • Edie Mirman
  • Mark Moseley as Mushu (Additional dialogue)
  • Patrick Pinney as Fa Deng
  • Peter Renaday
  • Maurita Thornburg-Phillips
  • John Walcutt
  • Claudette Wells
  • Chris Sanders as Little Brother
  • Peter Siragusa as Lieren (uncredited)
  • Jim Ward as Sheshou (uncredited)



Main article: Mulan (1998 soundtrack)

All songs are composed by Matthew Wilder with lyrics by David Zippel. All scores are composed by Jerry Goldsmith.


Main article: Mulan (1998 video)


Critical reaction[]

Reception of Mulan was mostly positive, gathering an 86% fresh rating from Rotten Tomatoes. Stephen Wong described the visuals as "stunning," Kyle Suggs described the visuals as "breathtaking," and Dan Jardine described the visuals as "magnificently animated." Many praise the movie for attempting something new. Fa Mulan is unlike a traditional Disney heroine, suggesting that she is independent and brave; without being overtly glamorous.

Film critic Roger Ebert gave Mulan three and a half stars out of four in his written review. He said that "Mulan is an impressive achievement, with a story and treatment ranking with Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King".

A negative review described it as a "disappointment." The songs are accused of not being memorable, and slowing down the pace of the movie. Some reviewers suggest that the film is "soulless" in its portrayal of Asian society.

Box office performance[]

Mulan's opening weekend box office figures were $22.8 million, placing it as the second highest grossing movie that week to The X-Files. It went on to make $120 million domestically and $304 million worldwide, placing it the second highest family film of the year, behind A Bug's Life, and the 7th highest of the year overall. However, these figures were criticized as being a significant decrease from former Disney films, and this was considered a sign of the decreasing popularity of cartoon animation. Top international releases include the United Kingdom ($14.6 million) and France ($10.2 million).


Mulan won many Annie Awards. The film itself won the award for Best Animated Theatrical Feature. Individual achievement awards were awarded to Pam Coats for producing; Barry Cook and Tony Bancroft for Directing; Rita Hsiao, Christopher Sanders, Philip LaZebnick, Raymond Singer, and Eugenia Bostwick-Singer in Writing; Chris Sanders for Storyboarding; Hans Bacher for Production Design; David Tidgwell for Effects Animation; Ming-Na Wen for Voice Acting for Mulan; Matthew Wilder, David Zippel, and Jerry Goldsmith for music and Ruben A. Aquino for Character Animation. Tom Bancroft and Mark Henn were also nominated for Character Animation. It was also nominated for an Academy Award for Original Music Score in 1998, but was beaten by Stephen Warbeck's score for Shakespeare in Love. The music score also received significant praise. Jerry Goldsmith won the 1999 BMI Film Music Award and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score in 1998. Wilder and Zippel were also nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song the same year for "Reflection". They were beaten by The Truman Show and "The Prayer" from Quest for Camelot respectively.

Chinese culture in Mulan[]

The Legend of Hua Mulan[]

The Chinese legend of Hua Mulan centers on a young woman who disguises herself as a man to take the place of her elderly father in the army. The story can be traced back to The Ballad of Mulan. The earliest accounts of the legend state that she lived during the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534). However, another version reports that Mulan was requested as a concubine by Emperor Yang of Sui China (reigned 604–617). The film may take place even later, as it prominently features landmarks such as the Forbidden City which was not constructed until the 15th Century. On the other hand, at the time of Northern Wei, the Xiongnu (Huns) had been already absorbed into Chinese culture. However, according to the style of dress (traditional Han clothing), the film takes place sometime in the 15th century or before. The fireworks featured in the movie indicate that the movie is set during the Sui dynasty. However, in Mulan II it is hinted by an Emperor's map that Mulan take place in the Northern Wei dynasty.

Although Mulan is set in north China, where the dominant language is Mandarin, the Disney film uses the Cantonese pronunciation, "Fa", of her family name. In Mandarin her name is pronounced "Hua".

Disney's Mulan casts the title character in much the same way as the original legend, a tomboy daughter of a respected veteran, somewhat troubled by being the "sophisticated lady" her society expects her to be after failing the matchmaker's training, dishonoring Mulan's family. In the original Mulan legend, Mulan uses her father's name Li and not the name "Ping" and she was never discovered as a girl. Also in the original legend, Mulan went to war for her father, because her father was getting too old to fight, and had no sons to take his place. However, in the film, it was added that her father's leg was injured. Mushu was also not in the original legend.


The script used for most of the text in Mulan is Traditional Chinese, which is no longer used in daily life on Mainland China (but still used in Hong Kong, Macau, and many overseas Chinese communities), although people are still able to read it. The traditional name for the leaders of the Central Asian Huns was Shanyu. The war between the Huns and China was real, called the Sino-Xiongnu War.

When Mulan masquerades as a man, her name is a pun in Chinese. Her first name is "Ping" (瓶), meaning pot, and her surname (placed first using Chinese naming conventions) means Flower (花). Together they make "Flowerpot", a Chinese term meaning an effeminate man. According to Orpheus in Mayfair and Other Stories and Sketches by Maurice Baring, "Ping" in Chinese means soldier-man, and if you wish to express your contempt for a man there is no word in the whole of the Chinese language which expresses it so fully and so emphatically as the word Ping. Chi-Fu's name literally means "to bully" in Chinese.


The Disney Wiki has a collection of images and media related to Mulan (1998 film).



  • After Ling loses his teeth after getting punched in the face, some scenes show him with all of his teeth back.
  • During the trek to the pass and during the battle, the number of soldiers increases and decreases multiple times.
  • Mulan was the first movie created outside L.A., California, created by Disney's Studio in Florida.
  • Mulan was almost a PG movie but went by different standards to get G. If it had been rated PG, it would have been the second Disney movie to be rated this after The Black Cauldron and the first Disney Princess movie to be rated PG.
  • During the avalanche, Mulan's helmet gets blown off and Shang's horse disappears but are both seen later in the film.
  • It took five years to make Mulan.
  • The movie only has songs for the first half; after A Girl Worth Fighting For, the characters discover the burnt-down village, and from then on, until the credits, no further songs are used to signify the darker tone.
  • The movie was almost a short movie titled China Doll until Robert D. San Souci came along.
  • Mulan was originally supposed to be betrothed to a wealthy man but this was changed so that it would not seem she was joining the army for selfish reasons.
  • When the troops discover that the Huns destroyed a village in the Tung Shao Pass, numerous dead bodies of soldiers can be seen, making Mulan the only Disney movie that shows numerous dead bodies.
  • Mulan awards, by far, the Disney highest 'on screen' body count since the avalanche implies the death of thousands of Huns, leaving only a few survivors.
  • The original theatrical release poster for Mulan makes a cameo in Nani's bedroom in Lilo & Stitch.
  • Lea Salonga, who sings as Mulan, sang as Jasmine.
  • There was supposed to be a Mulan 3 released in 2006, but it was canceled.
  • Mulan was supposed to appear as a young child in the original script of the film, but this was deleted because animators felt people would think she just wanted to be a soldier since it was a childhood interest, rather than to save her father.
  • Mulan is played by Ming-Na Wen who also plays Agent Melinda May in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.
  • Shan Yu was originally going to have a spiritual connection to his falcon Hayabusa where he was able to see through the falcon's eyes and a scene where he flat out murders one of his own soldiers in an extremely graphic way for trying to hide a small bird from him after the Huns has burned a village. This was deleted because it involved focusing on Shan Yu's character which meant taking away focus on Mulan and the animators wanted to focus more on Mulan's story and character. However it was possibly also deleted partly due to the scene being too dark and graphic and to prevent the movie being rated PG.
  • Lea Salonga and James Hong share the same birthday: February 22nd.
  • Although Mulan isn't a princess, this movie is still considered a Disney Princess movie.
  • This is the last Disney Princess film to be released during the Disney Renaissance.
  • The soundtrack To the Stars, which was used in a trailer for Mulan, originated from the 1996 Universal film Dragonheart.
  • Ming-Na Wen, B.D. Wong, James Hong and George Takei would later work on the Non-Disney series Gremlins: Secrets of the Mogwai.
  • A tie-in graphic novel called Disney Mulan's Adventure Journal: The Palace of Secrets takes place between the first and second films.


The original story of Mulan was based on the fifth century Chinese poem the Ballad of Mulan. The original poem was originally a short fable, designed to show gender equality, but in the following centuries it was developed until Hua Mulan became a legendary figure. As little contemporary evidence exists other than the poem, it is unknown whether she was a real or fictional figure.


Mulan features a score by Jerry Goldsmith and five songs by Matthew Wilder (music) and David Zippel (lyrics), with a sixth originally planned for Mushu, but dropped following Eddie Murphy's involvement with the character. The movie's soundtrack is credited for starting the career of pop princess Christina Aguilera, whose first song to be released in the U.S. was her rendition of "Reflection", the first single from the Mulan soundtrack. The song and Aguilera's vocals were so well-received that it landed her a recording contract with RCA records. In 1999, she would go on to release her self-titled debut album, on which "Reflection" was also included. As well as her own, the pop version of "Reflection" has two Spanish translations, because the movie has separate Spanish translations for Spain (performed by Malú) and Latin America (performed by Lucero). Other international versions include a Brazilian Portuguese version by Sandy & Junior ("Imagem") and a Mandarin version by Coco Lee.

Lea Salonga, the singing voice of Mulan in the movie, is also the singing voice of Princess Jasmine in Aladdin. The music featured during the haircut scene, often referred as the Mulan Decision score, is different in the soundtrack album. The soundtrack album uses an orchestrated score while the movie uses heavy synthesizer music. The synthesizer version is available on limited edition CD. Salonga, who enjoys singing movie music in her concerts, has done a Disney medley which climaxes with an expanded version of 'Reflection' (not the same as those in Aguilera's version). Salonga also provided the singing voice for Mulan in the movie's sequel, Mulan II.

The song "I'll Make a Man Out of You" was performed by Donny Osmond, who commented that his children decided that he had finally "made it" in show business when he was in a Disney film.

On Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic, this includes "I'll Make a Man Out of You" on the orange disc. And on Disney's Greatest Hits, this also includes "Reflection" on the blue disc, and "I'll Make a Man Out of You" on the green disc.

Stephen Schwartz, lyricist and composer of Pocahontas and The Hunchback of Notre Dame was originally hired to write and compose songs for the film, but these were not used due to his decision to continue with his work on the DreamWorks film The Prince of Egypt. Despite this, one of these songs, "Written in Stone", was later used for the children's theatre production Mulan Jr.[1]

References in Other Media[]

References to Mulan in Disney Media[]

Mushu from kh

Mushu in the game Kingdom Hearts.

  • When Mulan sings "Reflection", in her father's shrine, her reflection appears in the polished surface of the temple stones. The writing on the stones is the names of the Disney animators who worked on the film written in ancient Chinese.
  • In the scene where Mushu awakens the ancestors, one set of grandparents worry that Mulan's quest will ensure her family loses their farm. This couple appears to be the couple on the farm in Grant Wood's famous painting American Gothic.
  • There are a number of Hidden Mickeys in this film, including the spots on Shang's horse's neck and rump and in the training sequences, the first time the soldiers use their rockets.
  • Although she is technically not a princess, Mulan is an official member of the Disney Princess franchise. More often than not, Mulan is the subject of internet debates over whether she is a "real princess" or not, but her inclusion in Disney's official line-up leaves little question to the matter.
  • In the film Lilo & Stitch, Nani has a poster of Mulan in her room.
  • Mulan is present in the Disney and Square Enix video game series Kingdom Hearts. In the first Kingdom Hearts game and in Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, Mushu is a summonable character, and in Kingdom Hearts II, the movie is featured as a playable world named "The Land of Dragons", with the plot being changed to accommodate the game's protagonists (Sora, Donald, and Goofy) and Mulan (and Ping) able to join the player's party as a skilled sword fighter. In the title's manga adaptation, the character skirts the fourth wall to reference his absence in previous installments, an acknowledgement of the fact that Mushu did not appear in the Kingdom Hearts or Chain of Memories manga titles due to only being a summoned character.
  • In Tarzan, when the apes are jiggling Professor Porter, the things that fall out of his pockets include a plush doll of Little Brother.
  • In the first episode of Ms. Marvel, Kamala's guidance counsellor, Mr. Wilson, recites the lyrics from "Reflection" to her.

References to Mulan in popular culture[]

  • The British sitcom Spaced referenced Mulan in the second episode of the second series. In the show, characters are frequently hard-pressed to draw a line between fantasy and reality, and in this scene the character Daisy recalls Mulan as someone she has met "when she was traveling" until another character reminds her it was 'a Disney film'. Daisy also sings a very badly-remembered line of 'Reflection'.
  • In the television show Firefly, Shepherd Book mentions a Chinese warlord named Shan Yu who purportedly believed you could only truly know a man by torturing him.
  • Comedian Margaret Cho referred to a fish and rice diet a tabloid (falsely) reported her adhering to as being "so Mulan," in that it was based on the stereotypes of her ethnic background.
  • In the Ugly Betty season one episode "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", Mulan is referenced when Betty is quizzing Marc on his knowledge of her to fool his mother into thinking they are dating. However, he does not know much, as is evidenced when the question is about her favorite princess, and Marc guesses Mulan. Henry, on the other hand, knows it is Cinderella.
  • In the episode of Family Guy titled "Love Thy Trophy", Stewie is taken from the Griffin family and placed in the foster care of a couple who has adopted many children of different racial backgrounds (Chinese, Indian, African, Inuit, etc.). Stewie turns them all against each other by letting them know of the conflicts between their homelands and then by getting them to argue the ethnicity of Santa Claus. During the argument, one child tells his adopted Chinese sister to "Go back to your rice paddy, Mulan!"


External links[]

v - e - d
Mulan Logo
Films: Mulan (1998 film) (video/soundtrack) • Mulan II (video/soundtrack) • Mulan (2020 film) (video/soundtrack)

Video Games: Animated StoryBook: MulanDisney's MulanKingdom Hearts IIDisney Emoji BlitzDisney Crossy RoadDisney Magic KingdomsDisney Sorcerer's ArenaDisney Heroes: Battle ModeDisney Speedstorm
Books: The Art of MulanDisney Princess BeginningsReflection (A Twisted Tale)Kilala PrincessFeather and Flame

Disney Parks
Castle of Magical DreamsDisney Animation BuildingFantasy GardensGarden of the Twelve FriendsIt's a Small WorldVoyage to the Crystal Grotto

Entertainment: Cinderella's Surprise CelebrationDisney's WishesFantasmic!Mickey and the Magical MapMickey’s Storybook AdventureMickey’s Year of the Dragon CelebrationMulan's Chinese New Year GreetingsMulan, La LégendeOnce Upon a MouseRoyal Princess Music CelebrationThe Adventure of RhythmThe Golden MickeysWhen You Wish
Restaurants: Plaza Inn
Parades: Disney Adventure Friends CavalcadeMain Street Electrical ParadeMickey's New Year's Eve ParadeMickey's Rainy Day ExpressMickey's Storybook ExpressMulan Parade
Fireworks: Disney EnchantmentIlluminate! A Nighttime CelebrationDisney in the StarsDisney Movie MagicHappily Ever AfterHarmoniousHurry Home: Lunar New Year CelebrationIgnite the Dream: A Nighttime Spectacular of Magic and LightMomentousWondrous Journeys
Spring: Disney Color-Fest: A Street Party!
Summer: Mickey's WaterWorks
Halloween: The Disney Villains Halloween Showtime
Christmas: A Christmas Fantasy Parade

Original: Fa MulanMushuCri-KeeLi ShangYao, Ling, and Chien PoChi-FuShan YuGeneral LiFa ZhouFa LiGrandmother FaFirst Ancestor FaFa Family AncestorsThe Emperor of ChinaThe MatchmakerLittle BrotherKhanShang's HorseHayabusa the FalconImperial ArmyHun ArmyElite Hun Soldiers

Sequel: Sha-RonTing-Ting, Su, and MeiLord QinPrince Jeeki
Remake: Hua XiuCommander TungChen HonghuiSergeant QiangPhoenix

Original: Honor to Us AllReflectionI'll Make a Man Out of YouA Girl Worth Fighting ForTrue to Your Heart

Sequel: Lesson Number OneLike Other GirlsHere Beside Me
Live-action: Loyal Brave True
Deleted songs: Keep 'em GuessingWritten in Stone

ChinaImperial CityFa Family HomeVillageFa Family Temple
Great Stone DragonMulan's Hair AccessorySword of Shan YuMulan and Shang's NecklacesGolden Dragon of UnityDragon Cannons
See Also
Mulan: Alternative OpeningMulan: Shan Yu Destroys the Village

v - e - d
Disney Princesses logo
Official Disney Princesses: Snow WhiteCinderellaAuroraArielBelleJasminePocahontasMulanTianaRapunzelMeridaMoanaRaya

Other Princesses: Minnie MouseTiger LilyMaid MarianEilonwyDaughters of TritonCallaMegaraMelodySallyKida NedakhTing-Ting, Su, and MeiKilala RenoKairiPrincess of GentlehavenNancy TremaineVanellope von SchweetzSofiaAnnaElsaElena
Other Heroines: AliceWendy DarlingTinker BellNalaNakomaEsmeraldaJane PorterGiselleMirabel MadrigalAsha

Films: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) • Cinderella (1950) • Sleeping Beauty (1959) • The Little Mermaid (1989) • Beauty and the Beast (1991) • Aladdin (1992) • Pocahontas (1995) • Mulan (1998) • The Princess and the Frog (2009) • Tangled (2010) • Brave (2012) • Moana (2016) • Raya and the Last Dragon (2021) • Moana 2 (2024)

Theme Songs: "If You Can Dream""It's Not Just Make Believe""The Glow""Live Your Story""Starting Now""Like a Princess"
Video Games: Disney Princess: Fashion BoutiqueDisney PrincessDisney Princess: Magical Dress-UpDisney Princess: Royal Horse ShowDisney Princess: Royal AdventureDisney Princess: Enchanted JourneyDisney Princess: Magical JewelsDisney Princess: My Fairytale AdventureDisney Princess Enchanting StorybooksDisney Princess Majestic QuestDisney Tsum TsumDisney Emoji BlitzDisney Heroes: Battle ModeDisney Magic Kingdoms
Home Video: Disney Princess Sing Along Songs: Once Upon a DreamDisney Princess Sing Along Songs Vol. 2 - Enchanted Tea PartyDisney Princess Sing Along Songs Vol. 3 - Perfectly PrincessDisney Princess Enchanted Tales: Follow Your Dreams
Books: Kilala PrincessDisney PrincessDisney Princess BeginningsDisney Princess Comics TreasuryRoyal Weddings
Cancelled: Princess Academy

Disney Parks
Castle of Magical DreamsEnchanted Storybook CastleFairy Tale ForestFantasy FaireGolden Fairytale FanfareMickey's Magical CelebrationMinnie's Tiara of DreamsPLAY!Princess PavilionRoyal Banquet Hall

Fireworks: Disney Illuminations

See Also
Sofia the FirstDisney FairiesPrincesses of HeartPalace PetsPrincess AcademyRalph Breaks the InternetDisney Princess - The ConcertLike a Princess

v - e - d
Walt Disney Animation Studios
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) • Pinocchio (1940) • Fantasia (1940) • Dumbo (1941) • Bambi (1942) • Saludos Amigos (1942) • The Three Caballeros (1944) • Make Mine Music (1946) • Fun and Fancy Free (1947) • Melody Time (1948) • The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad (1949) • Cinderella (1950) • Alice in Wonderland (1951) • Peter Pan (1953) • Lady and the Tramp (1955) • Sleeping Beauty (1959) • One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) • The Sword in the Stone (1963) • The Jungle Book (1967) • The Aristocats (1970) • Robin Hood (1973) • The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (1977) • The Rescuers (1977) • The Fox and the Hound (1981) • The Black Cauldron (1985) • The Great Mouse Detective (1986) • Oliver & Company (1988) • The Little Mermaid (1989) • The Rescuers Down Under (1990) • Beauty and the Beast (1991) • Aladdin (1992) • The Lion King (1994) • Pocahontas (1995) • The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) • Hercules (1997) • Mulan (1998) • Tarzan (1999) • Fantasia 2000 (1999) • Dinosaur (2000) • The Emperor's New Groove (2000) • Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001) • Lilo & Stitch (2002) • Treasure Planet (2002) • Brother Bear (2003) • Home on the Range (2004) • Chicken Little (2005) • Meet the Robinsons (2007) • Bolt (2008) • The Princess and the Frog (2009) • Tangled (2010) • Winnie the Pooh (2011) • Wreck-It Ralph (2012) · Frozen (2013) • Big Hero 6 (2014) • Zootopia (2016) • Moana (2016) • Ralph Breaks the Internet (2018) • Frozen II (2019) • Raya and the Last Dragon (2021) • Encanto (2021)Strange World (2022) • Wish (2023)

Upcoming: Moana 2 (2024) • Zootopia 2 (2025) • Frozen III (2026) • Frozen IV (TBA)

Pixar Animation Studios
Toy Story (1995) • A Bug's Life (1998) • Toy Story 2 (1999) · Monsters, Inc. (2001) • Finding Nemo (2003) • The Incredibles (2004) • Cars (2006) • Ratatouille (2007) • WALL-E (2008) • Up (2009) • Toy Story 3 (2010) • Cars 2 (2011) • Brave (2012) • Monsters University (2013) • Inside Out (2015) • The Good Dinosaur (2015) • Finding Dory (2016) • Cars 3 (2017) • Coco (2017) • Incredibles 2 (2018) • Toy Story 4 (2019) • Onward (2020) • Soul (2020) • Luca (2021) • Turning Red (2022) • Lightyear (2022) • Elemental (2023) • Inside Out 2 (2024)

Upcoming: Elio (2025) • Toy Story 5 (2026)

Disneytoon Studios
DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp (1990) • A Goofy Movie (1995) • The Tigger Movie (2000) · Peter Pan: Return to Never Land (2002) • The Jungle Book 2 (2003) • Piglet's Big Movie (2003) • Pooh's Heffalump Movie (2005) • Planes (2013) • Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014)
Disney Television Animation
Doug's 1st Movie (1999) • Recess: School's Out (2001) • Teacher's Pet (2004)
20th Century Animation
Spies in Disguise (2019) • Ron's Gone Wrong (2021) • The Bob's Burgers Movie (2022)
Films with Stop Motion Animation
The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) • James and the Giant Peach (1996) • Frankenweenie (2012)
Other Disney units
The Brave Little Toaster (1987) • Valiant (2005) • The Wild (2006) • A Christmas Carol (2009) • Gnomeo & Juliet (2011) • Mars Needs Moms (2011) • Strange Magic (2015) • The Lion King (2019)

Upcoming: Mufasa: The Lion King (2024)

Live-Action Films with Non-CG Animation
The Reluctant Dragon (1941) • Victory Through Air Power (1943) • Song of the South (1946) • So Dear to My Heart (1949) • Mary Poppins (1964) • Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971) • Pete's Dragon (1977) • Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) • The Lizzie McGuire Movie (2003) • Enchanted (2007) • Mary Poppins Returns (2018)