Toy Story is a CGI animated media franchise created by Pixar and distributed by Walt Disney Pictures, beginning with the original 1995 film, Toy Story. The franchise focuses on a group of toys that secretly come to life and end up unexpectedly embarking on life-changing adventures. The first two films of the franchise were directed by John Lasseter, the third by Lee Unkrich, co-director of the second film, and the fourth by Josh Cooley, a storyboard artist at Pixar Animation Studios.
All the four films, produced on a total budget of US$320 million, have grossed more than $1.9 billion worldwide. Each film set box office records, with the third included in the top 10 all-time worldwide films. Critics have given all four films extremely positive reviews. Special Blu-ray and DVD editions of Toy Story and Toy Story 2 were released on March 23, 2010. They were also re-released in theaters as a Disney Digital 3-D "double feature" for at least two weeks in October 2009. The series is currently the 15th highest-grossing franchise worldwide and among the most critically acclaimed tetralogies of all time. On November 1, 2011, the first three Toy Story films were released in Disney Blu-ray 3D as a trilogy pack and individual films.
- 1 Film series
- 2 Television specials
- 3 Toy Story Toons
- 4 Reception
- 5 Cast and characters
- 6 Other media
- 7 Theme park attractions
- 8 Other information
- 9 Impact
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Toy Story series consists of four CGI animated films, which include Toy Story (1995), Toy Story 2 (1999), Toy Story 3 (2010), and Toy Story 4 (2019). Toy Story, the first film in the series, was the first feature-length film to be made entirely using computer generated imagery. The films were produced by Pixar Animation Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Pictures.
The first and second films have a perfect 100% on Rotten Tomatoes, while the third and fourth received a 98% and 97% rating respectively. The third film in the series became the highest-grossing animated film and the 9th highest-grossing film of all time. It also became the third animated film in history to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, following Beauty and the Beast and Up.
Toy Story (1995)
- Main article: Toy Story
Toy Story, the first film in the franchise, was released on November 22, 1995 as the first feature-length film created entirely by CGI and directed by John Lasseter. The plot involves Andy getting a new Buzz Lightyear toy, and Woody thinking that he has been replaced as Andy's favorite toy. As a result of Woody's jealousy, he tries to knock Buzz behind a table, but accidentally knocks him out the window. Determined to set things right, Woody attempts to save Buzz, and both try to escape from the house of the next-door neighbor Sid Phillips, who likes to torture and destroy toys. The film was critically and financially successful, grossing over $361 million worldwide. The film was later re-released in Disney Digital 3-D as part of a double feature, along with Toy Story 2, for a 2-week run, which was later extended due to its financial success.
Toy Story 2 (1999)
- Main article: Toy Story 2
Toy Story 2, the second film in the franchise, was released on November 24, 1999 with John Lasseter reprising his role as director. The plot involves Woody getting stolen by a greedy toy collector named Al. Buzz and several of Andy's toys go around the Tri-County Area to save him. Toy Story 2 was not originally intended for release in theaters, but as a direct-to-video sequel to the original Toy Story, with a 60 minute running time. However, Disney's executives saw how impressive the in-work imagery for the sequel was, and due to pressure from the main characters' voice actors Tom Hanks and Tim Allen, they decided to convert Toy Story 2 into a theatrical film. It turned out to be an even greater success than the original Toy Story, grossing over $485 million worldwide. The film was re-released in Disney Digital 3-D as part of a double feature, along with Toy Story, on October 2, 2009.
Toy Story 3 (2010)
- Main article: Toy Story 3
Toy Story 3, the third film in the franchise, was released on June 18, 2010 as the first Toy Story film not to be directed by John Lasseter. Although Lasseter remained involved in the film as executive producer, Lee Unkrich was chosen as director after editing the first two films and co-directing the second. Set ten years after the events of the second, the plot focuses on the toys accidentally being dropped off at a daycare center while their owner, Andy, is getting ready to go away to college. The film contains over 150 new characters, according to Pixar. It was the highest-grossing Pixar film worldwide, surpassing Finding Nemo, until it was surpassed by Incredibles 2 in 2018. It is currently the third highest-grossing Pixar film worldwide (behind Incredibles 2 and Toy Story 4). In August 2010, it surpassed Shrek 2 to become the highest-grossing animated film of all time worldwide, a record it held until it was surpassed by Frozen in 2013. It is currently the sixth highest-grossing animated film of all time worldwide (behind Frozen II, Frozen, Incredibles 2, Minions, and Toy Story 4). It grossed more than the first and second films combined, making it the first animated film to have earned more than $1 billion at the box office.
Toy Story 4 (2019)
- Main article: Toy Story 4
Toy Story 4, the fourth film in the franchise, was released on June 21, 2019. Taking place some years after Toy Story 3, the story involves Woody, Buzz, and the other toys having to teach Bonnie's homemade toy Forky how to be a toy. During a road trip with Bonnie's family, Woody meets up with Bo Peep and eventually has to deal with fears of becoming a "lost toy". Don Rickles had died in 2017 prior to the production of the film, but Pixar used archival recordings from him to continue his voice work for the film. Additional new cast members in the film include Keegan-Michael Key, Jordan Peele, Keanu Reeves, and Christina Hendricks. The film had been originally announced on November 6, 2014 during an investor's call with Lasseter to direct, Galyn Susman to produce, with the screenplay written by Rashida Jones and Will McCormack based on the story developed by Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, Pete Docter, and Lee Unkrich. However, during production, Lasseter stepped down from his position at Pixar in 2017, though remained to consult for the film; Josh Cooley was named as the film's director, with Jonas Rivera replacing Susman as producer. The film underwent a major revision following the departures of Jones and McCormack later in 2017, with Stephany Folsom replacing them as screenwriter. Much of the original script by Jones and McCormack had to be dropped, delaying the release of the film.
In addition to Toy Story Toons, Toy Story also had two 22-minute television specials that aired on ABC. The first, a Halloween themed special titled Toy Story of Terror!, premiered on October 16, 2013, while the second, a Christmas themed special titled Toy Story That Time Forgot, premiered on December 2, 2014.
Toy Story of Terror!
- Main article: Toy Story of Terror!
A Halloween themed 22-minute television special, titled Toy Story of Terror!, premiered on October 16, on ABC. The special follows the toys on their road trip, when an unexpected event leads them to a roadside motel. After one of the toys goes missing, the others find themselves caught up in a mysterious sequence of events that must be solved before they all suffer the same fate.
Toy Story That Time Forgot
- Main article: Toy Story That Time Forgot
A Christmas-themed television special, titled Toy Story That Time Forgot, premiered on December 2, 2014 on ABC. Taking place after a Christmas, the toys find themselves lost when a set of the coolest action figures, named Battlesaurs, turns out to be dangerously delusional. It is up to Trixie to help the toys to return to Bonnie's room.
Forky Asks a Question
- Main article: Forky Asks a Question
A series of short films entitled "Forky Asks a Question" debuted November 12th, 2019 on Disney+. The series features 10 short films taking place after Toy Story 4 and centers around Toy Story 4's tritagonist, Forky. Members of the Toy Story gang such as Hamm, Rex, Trixie, and Dolly will explain concepts such as love, time, and cheese.
- Main article: Lamp Life
Toy Story Toons
- Main article: Toy Story Toons
In 2011, Pixar started releasing short animated films based on the Toy Story films, called Toy Story Toons. The shorts pick up where Toy Story 3 has left off, with Woody, Buzz, and Andy's other toys finding a new home at Bonnie's. So far, three shorts have been released; Hawaiian Vacation, Small Fry, and Partysaurus Rex. Two new shorts are in development; one will be released in Spring 2013.
- Main article: Hawaiian Vacation
Toy Story Toons: Hawaiian Vacation is a 2011 Pixar animated short directed by Gary Rydstrom. The short features characters from the Toy Story series and takes place after the events of Toy Story 3. It was released in theatres before Pixar's feature film Cars 2. In the short film, Ken and Barbie want to go to Hawaii, but get left behind, so Woody, Buzz and the other toys from the previous film console them by making a Hawaiian vacation in Bonnie's room.
- Main article: Small Fry
Toy Story Toons: Small Fry, another Toy Story short, premiered before The Muppets. This marks the second time a Pixar short has screened with a non-Pixar film, after Tokyo Mater screened with Bolt. Directed by Angus MacLane, the short involves Buzz getting trapped at a fast food restaurant at a support group for discarded toys, with a kids' meal toy version of Buzz taking his place.
- Main article: Partysaurus Rex
Toy Story Toons: Partysaurus Rex, the third of the series, was released with the theatrical 3D re-release of Finding Nemo. Directed by Mark Walsh with music composed by electronic artist BT, the short involves Rex getting left out in the bathroom and making friends with bath toys.
Box office performance
Toy Story's first five days of domestic release (on Thanksgiving weekend), earned the film $39,071,176. The film placed first in the weekend's box office with $29,140,617, and maintained its number one position at the domestic box office for the following two weekends. It was the highest-grossing domestic film in 1995, and the third highest-grossing animated film at the time (behind The Lion King and Aladdin).
Toy Story 2 opened at #1 over the Thanksgiving Day weekend, with a three-day tally of $57,388,839 from 3,236 theaters. It averaged $17,734 per theater over three days during that weekend, and stayed at #1 for the next two weekends. It was the third highest-grossing film of 1999 (behind Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace and The Sixth Sense).
Toy Story 3 had a strong debut, opening in 4,028 theaters and grossing $41,148,961 at the box office on its opening day. In addition, Toy Story 3 had the highest opening day gross for an animated film on record. During its opening weekend, the film grossed $110,307,189, making it #1 for the weekend; it was the biggest opening weekend ever for any Pixar film. Toy Story 3 stayed at the #1 spot for the next weekend. The film had the second highest opening ever for an animated film. It was the highest-grossing film of 2010, both domestically and worldwide. Toy Story 3 grossed over $1 billion, making it the seventh film in history (after Titanic, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, The Dark Knight, Avatar and Alice in Wonderland) the second Disney film in 2010 (after Alice in Wonderland), the third Disney film overall (after Dead Man's Chest and Alice in Wonderland), and the first animated film to do so.
Toy Story is the 15th highest-grossing franchise of all time, and the third highest-grossing animated franchise worldwide behind Shrek and Ice Age.
|United States||Foreign||Worldwide||All time domestic||All time worldwide|
|Toy Story 2||11/24/1999||$245,852,179||$251,514,690||$497,366,869||#75
|Toy Story/Toy Story 2
(Disney Digital 3-D)
|Toy Story 3||6/18/2010||$415,004,880||$651,964,823||$1,066,969,703||#12
|Toy Story 4||6/21/2019||$432,389,558||$625,716,241||$1,058,105,799||#22
According to Rotten Tomatoes, the Toy Story tetralogy is the most critically acclaimed tetralogy of all time. The first two films received a 100% rating, while the third and fourth respectively earned 98% and 97%. According to the site, no other tetralogy has had all of its films rated so highly - the Indiana Jones and Avengers film tetralogies come close with an average rating of 87%, while the Toy Story tetralogy has an average of an almost perfect 99%.
According to Metacritic, the Toy Story tetralogy is the most critically acclaimed tetralogy of all time, with an average rounded score of 90 out of 100. As of June 23, 2019, all the films in the tetralogy are placed on the site's Best Reviewed Movies List.
|Toy Story||100% (85 reviews)||95 (26 reviews)|
|Toy Story 2||100% (169 reviews)||88 (34 reviews)|
|Toy Story 3||98% (304 reviews)||92 (39 reviews)|
|Toy Story 4||97% (400 reviews)||84 (57 reviews)|
Awards and nominations
Toy Story was nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Score and Best Original Song for Randy Newman's "You've Got a Friend in Me". John Lasseter, the director of the film, also received a Special Achievement Award for "the development and inspired application of techniques that have made possible the first feature-length computer-animated film". Toy Story was also the first animated film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. At the 53rd Golden Globe Awards, Toy Story earned two Golden Globe nominations - Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy and Best Original Song. It was also nominated for Best Special Visual Effects at the 50th British Academy Film Awards.
Toy Story 2 won a Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy and earned a single Academy Award nomination for the song "When She Loved Me " performed by Sarah McLachlan. The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature was introduced in 2001, after the first two Toy Story installments.
Toy Story 3 won two Academy Awards - Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song "We Belong Together". It earned three other nominations, including Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Sound Editing. It was the third animated film in history to be nominated for Best Picture, after Beauty and the Beast and Up. Toy Story 3 also won the Golden Globe for Best Animated Feature Film and the award for Best Animated Film at the British Academy Film Awards.
Cast and characters
Film series and TV specials
|Character||Main Films||ABC Stuff|
|Toy Story (1995)||Toy Story 2 (1999)||Toy Story 3 (2010)||Toy Story 4 (2019)||Toy Story Treats (1996)||Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000)||Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins (2000)||Toy Story of Terror! (2013)||Toy Story That Time Forgot (2014)|
|Woody||Tom Hanks||Jim Hanks||Silent Cameo||Jim Hanks||Tom Hanks|
|Buzz Lightyear||Tim Allen||Tim Allen (English voice) and Javier Fernandez-Peña (Spanish voice)||Tim Allen||Pat Fraley||Patrick Warburton||Tim Allen|
|Aliens||Jeff Pidgeon||Jeff Pidgeon and Patrick Warburton||Silent Cameo|
|Hamm||John Ratzenberger||Silent Cameo||Andrew Stanton||Mentioned Only|
|Rex||Wallace Shawn||Silent Cameo||Wallace Shawn|
|Slinky Dog||Jim Varney||Blake Clark||Silent Cameo|
|Jessie||Joan Cusack||Silent Cameo||Joan Cusack|
|Bullseye||Character is mute||Character is mute|
|Mr. Potato Head||Don Rickles||Don Rickles|
|Wheezy||Silent Cameo||Silent Cameo||Joe Ranft|
|Emperor Zurg||Mentioned Only||Andrew Stanton||Silent Cameo||Mentioned Only||Wayne Knight|
|Bo Peep||Annie Potts||Silent Cameo||Annie Potts||Silent Cameo|
|Mrs. Potato Head||Mentioned Only||Estelle Harris|
|Andy Davis||John Morris||John Morris (teenager) and Charlie Bright (past)||John Morris (teenager) and Jack McGraw (past)||Mentioned Only|
|Molly Davis||Hannah Unkrich||Hannah Unkrick (Archive recording; past) and Beatrice Miller (present)|
|Mrs. Davis||Laurie Metcalf|
|Mr. Shark||Jack Angel||Silent Cameo|
|Mr. Spell||Jeff Pidgeon||Silent Cameo|
|Buster||Heard and Mentioned only||Character is mute|
|Lenny||Joe Ranft||Silent Cameo||Silent Cameo|
|Robot||Jeff Pidgeon||Silent Cameo||Silent Cameo|
|Bonnie Anderson||Emily Hahn||Madeline McGraw||Emily Hahn|
|Mrs. Anderson||Lori Alan||Lori Alan|
|Mr. Pricklepants||Timothy Dalton||Timothy Dalton|
|Trixie||Kristen Schaal||Kristen Schaal|
|Peas-In-A-Pod||Charlie Bright, Amber Kroner, and Brianna Maiwand|
|Al McWhiggin||Mentioned Only||Wayne Knight||Referenced Only|
|Stinky Pete||Kelsey Grammer|
|Sid Phillips||Erik Von Detten||Mentioned Only||Erik Von Detten||Erik Von Detten|
|Hannah Phillips||Sarah Freeman|
|Big Baby||Woody Smith|
|Chatter Telephone||Teddy Newton|
|Mutant Toys||Characters Are Mute||Characters Are Mute|
|Combat Carl||Character is Mute||Carl Weathers||Character is Mute|
- Note: A red cell indicates the character didn't appear in that medium.
|Character||Buzz Lightyear: Mission Logs||Toy Story Toons|
|Blast Off||International Space Station||The Science of Adventure||Hawaiian Vacation||Small Fry||Partysaurus Rex|
|Woody||Silent Cameo||Tom Hanks|
|Buzz Lightyear||Tim Allen||Tim Allen (English voice) and Javier Fernandez-Peña (Spanish voice)||Tim Allen|
|Aliens||Jeff Pidgeon||Silent Cameo|
|Slinky Dog||Blake Clark||Silent Cameo|
|Jessie||Joan Cusack||Silent Cameo|
|Bullseye||Character is mute|
|Mr. Potato Head||Don Rickles||Silent Cameo||Don Rickles|
|Mrs. Potato Head||Estelle Harris|
|Bonnie Anderson||Emily Hahn|
|Mrs. Anderson||Lori Alan|
|Mr. Pricklepants||Timothy Dalton||Silent Cameo|
|Trixie||Kristen Schaal||Silent Cameo|
|Buttercup||Jeff Garlin||Silent Cameo|
|Dolly||Bonnie Hunt||Silent Cameo|
- Note: A red cell indicates the character wasn't in the short film.
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000)
- Main article: Buzz Lightyear of Star Command
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command is a spin-off TV series. The series takes place in the far future, a pastiche of Star Trek and Star Wars-style science fiction. It features Buzz Lightyear (voiced by Patrick Warburton), a famous, experienced Space Ranger who takes a crew of rookies under his wing as he investigates criminal activity across the galaxy and attempts to bring down Evil Emperor Zurg once and for all. It aired on ABC from August 8, 2000 to January 13, 2001.
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins (2000)
- Main article: Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins is a spin-off animated direct-to-video film, partially based on Toy Story. The film was released on August 8, 2000. It acts as a pilot to the television series Buzz Lightyear of Star Command. In this film, Buzz Lightyear is a space ranger who fights against the evil Emperor Zurg, showing the inspiration for the Buzz Lightyear toyline that exists in the Toy Story series. Tim Allen reprises his role as the voice of Buzz Lightyear. Although the film was criticized for not using the same animation as in Toy Story and Toy Story 2, it sold three million VHS and DVDs in its first week of release.
Buzz Lightyear: Mission Logs
In 2008, to promote the theatrical release of Toy Story 3, NASA sent a Buzz Lightyear into space. Pixar released short films on the 2010 Toy Story Blu-rays confirming it was actually Andy's Buzz Lightyear. Each short shows Buzz telling Rex and Hamm how he got home. Episodes 1 and 2 were released on the 2010 Blu-ray combo packs and DVDs of Toy Story and Toy Story 2. Episode 3 was released on Blu-ray and DVD of Toy Story 3.
- Toy Story (1996) (Sega Mega Drive, Super NES, PC, and Game Boy)
- Toy Story 2: Buzz Lightyear to the Rescue (1999) (Dreamcast, PlayStation, Nintendo 64, and PC)
- Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000) (Game Boy Color, PlayStation, and PC)
- Toy Story 2: Woody Sousaku Daisakusen! (N/A) (Sega Pico) - released only in Japan
- Toy Story Racer (2001) (PlayStation and Game Boy Color)
- Disney's Extreme Skate Adventure (2003) (Game Boy Advance, PlayStation 2, Xbox, Nintendo GameCube)
- Toy Story Mania! (2009/2012) (Wii, PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3)
- Toy Story 3: The Video Game (2010) (PC, Wii, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, and Nintendo DS)
- Shooting Beena: Toy Story 3: Woody to Buzz no Daibōken! (2010) (Advanced Pico Beena) - released only in Japan
- Kinect Rush: A Disney/Pixar Adventure (2012) (Xbox 360)
Pixar created original animations for the games, including fully animated sequences for PC titles.
Woody and Buzz Lightyear were originally going to appear as summons in the Final Mix version of the Disney/Square Enix video game Kingdom Hearts II. They were omitted from the final product, but their models appear in the game's coding, without textures. The director of the Kingdom Hearts series, Tetsuya Nomura, has stated that he would like to include Pixar properties in future Kingdom Hearts games, given Disney's purchase of Pixar. At the 2017 D23 Expo, the world of Toy Story was announced to be the first Pixar world to be in the upcoming Kingdom Hearts III.
Merchandising and software
Toy Story had a large promotion prior to its release, leading to numerous tie-ins with the film including images on food packaging. A variety of merchandise was released during the film's theatrical run and its initial VHS release including toys, clothing, and shoes, among other things. When action figures for Buzz Lightyear and Sheriff Woody were created, they were initially ignored by retailers. However, after over 250,000 figures were sold for each character prior to the film's release, demand continued to expand, eventually reaching over 25 million units sold by 2007. Also, Disney's Animated Storybook: Toy Story and Disney's Activity Center: Toy Story were released for Windows and Mac. Disney's Animated Storybook: Toy Story was the best selling software title of 1996, selling over 500,000 copies.
Theme park attractions
- Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin at the Magic Kingdom casts theme park guests as cadets in Buzz's Space Ranger Corps. Guests ride through various scenes featuring Emperor Zurg's henchmen, firing "laser canons" at their Z symbols and scoring points for each hit.
- Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters at Disneyland, is very similar to Space Ranger Spin, except that the laser canons are hand-held rather than mounted to the ride vehicle.
- Buzz Lightyear's Astro Blasters at DisneyQuest in Walt Disney World, despite the nearly identical name to the Disneyland attraction, is a bumper car style attraction in which guests compete against each other not only by ramming their ride vehicles into each other, but also by firing "asteroids" (playground balls) at each other.
- Toy Story Midway Mania! at both Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World and Disney California Adventure Park in Disneyland features a series of interactive carnival-type games hosted by the Toy Story characters. Guests ride in vehicles while wearing 3D glasses, and using a pull-string canon to launch virtual rings, darts, baseballs, etc. Disney announced an update to the attraction to add characters from Toy Story 3 several months before the film's release date.
- Toy Story Playland at Walt Disney Studios Park and Hong Kong Disneyland is a Pixar themed area designed to help promote Toy Story 3. It is designed to "shrink the guest" down to being the size of a toy, so he or she can play in Andy's Backyard with his toys from the films. It does this through using highly immersive theming, using bamboo to act as giant blades of grass surrounding the area, the use of many themed props and characters from the Toy Story films such as a giant Buzz Lightyear, a giant Rex, an oversized paper plane and a large ball from the first Pixar short, Luxo Jr. The area also features many photo opportunities.
- World of Color at Disney's California Adventure is a large, nighttime water and light show. Some of the scenes projected on the water screens feature animation from the first two Toy Story films.
- Celebrate! Tokyo Disneyland is a nighttime water, projections and pyrotechnic show at Tokyo Disneyland. Some of the scenes projected on the castle feature battle between Buzz Lightyear and Zurg seen in the attraction plays out to the sounds of the Toy Story 2 prologue soundtrack at Tomorrowland segment.
After the first film, they have short clips called "Toy Story Treats". Usually, they are seen on ABC Family.
Toy Story's innovative computer animation had a large impact on the film industry. After the film's debut, various industries were interested in the technology used for the film. Graphics chip makers desired to compute imagery similar to the film's animation for personal computers; game developers wanted to learn how to replicate the animation for video games; and robotics researchers were interested in building artificial intelligence into their machines that compared to the lifelike characters in the film. Various authors have also compared the film to an interpretation of Don Quixote as well as humanism.
"To infinity and beyond!"
Buzz Lightyear's classic line "To infinity and beyond!" has seen usage not only on T-shirts, but among philosophers and mathematical theorists as well. Lucia Hall of The Humanist linked the film's plot to an interpretation of humanism. She compared the phrase to "All this and heaven, too!", indicating one who is happy with a life on Earth as well as having an afterlife. In 2008, during STS-124, astronauts took an action figure of Buzz Lightyear into space on the Discovery Space Shuttle as part of an educational experience for students that also stressed the catchphrase. The action figure was used for experiments in zero-g. Also in 2008, the phrase made international news when it was reported that a father and son had continually repeated the phrase to help them keep track of each other while treading water for 15 hours in the Atlantic Ocean.
- Han, Angie. "ABC Announces ‘Toy Story That Time Forgot’ Christmas Special".
- "Pixar Creating Forky-Focused Short Films For Disney+". Empire (11 April 2019). Retrieved on 12 April 2019.